Almost every woman will experience abnormal uterine bleeding AUB at least once in her lifetime. Undiagnosed or untreated bleeding may also cause the woman to undergo unnecessary gynecologic procedures or needless initiation or disruption of oral contraceptives OCs or HRT. The majority of AUB episodes occurs within years of menarche and years before menopause begins.
A more recent article on abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women is available. HULL, M. Patient Information Handout.
The menstrual cycle is a highly regulated, physiological process that makes conception and pregnancy possible. From the start of menstruation menarche to its cessation menopausemonthly menstrual bleeding menses is regulated by hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Even the smallest changes in hormone levels can result in menstrual cycle abnormalities.
Skip to Content. Use the menu to see other pages. People with a pituitary gland tumor may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with a pituitary gland tumor do not have any of these changes.
The pituitary gland is a tiny pea-sized endocrine gland located in a bony cavity in the base of the brain. The pituitary gland plays a major role in regulating a wide range of biological functions. It secretes hormones involved in:.
Amenorrhea uh-men-o-REE-uh is the absence of menstruation — one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea, as do girls who haven't begun menstruation by age The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy.
Donate now on our JustGiving page. FSH and LH control sex and reproduction. In women they cause release of the sex hormone oestrogen and stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs; these hormones are essential for a normal menstrual cycle.
We present the case of a year-old nulliparous woman who experienced irregular menstrual cycles for about 10 years and developed both pituitary prolactinoma and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism by inhibiting secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thus suppressing luteinizing hormone levels, which can cause menstrual disorders ranging from amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulatory cycle to short luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A chronic anovulatory menstrual cycle is the most common cause of long-term exposure of the endometrium to endogenous estrogen without adequate opposition from progestins, which can lead to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.