The prognosis of early breast cancer EBC depends on patient and tumor characteristics. The association between tumor size, the largest diameter in TNM staging, and prognosis is well recognized. According to TNM, tumors classified as T2, could have very different volumes; e.
Stage 3 cancer means the breast cancer has extended to beyond the immediate region of the tumor and may have invaded nearby lymph nodes and muscles, but has not spread to distant organs. Although this stage is considered to be advanced, there are a growing number of effective treatment options. The difference is determined by the size of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and surrounding tissue.
Hearing you have stage 3 breast cancer can bring many questions — about your diagnosis, survival, treatments, and more. First, stage 3 breast cancer means your cancer has spread beyond the tumor and has possibly gone to lymph nodes and muscle, but has not spread to nearby organs. Doctors divide stage 3 into more specific categories 3A, 3B, and 3C and the cancer subtype, meaning which type of breast cancer you have.
Staging and grading usually happens after your breast tumour has been removed by surgery, as a pathologist will need to test the tissue in a laboratory and examine it under a microscope. The grade of a tumour indicates what the cells look like and gives an idea of how quickly the cancer may grow and spread. Tumours are graded between 1 and 3.
Right now, there is not a simple test that can determine all of this and, moreover, what these factors—in combination—mean for a patient. TNM is the most widely used staging system for breast cancer. Each letter of the acronym stands for a defining element of the disease.
What grade is the breast cancer? What size is the breast cancer? Cancer cells are given a grade according to how different they are to normal breast cells and how quickly they are growing.
This summary table contains detailed information about research studies. Summary tables are a useful way to look at the science behind many breast cancer guidelines and recommendations. Learn how to read a research table.
The past two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of women diagnosed with T1a and T1b breast cancer. This rise in early-stage breast cancer is largely attributed to the increase in screening mammography that can detect cancer in its early stages, in some cases when the tumors are under 1cm and before the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. In T1a breast cancer, the tumor size is less than or equal to 5 millimeters mm ; in T1b, the tumor size is greater than 5 mm, but less than or equal to 10 mm.